A new economic era is quickly replacing the old, affecting virtually every aspect of Canadian life. Many assumptions no longer seem to apply — yet new realities still need to be defined. These ambiguities are causing Canadian companies to question their business tactics and reassess their strategies.

For centuries, an abundance of natural resources was known to secure a nation's competitive advantage. This is being replaced by human skills. Many of our largest corporations that dominated our landscape for decades are being pushed aside by leaner, knowledge-intensive companies.

These massive changes are challenging every Canadian business and in many cases forcing them to expand internationally — or risk losing ground to foreign and domestic competition. More and more Canadian companies have come to realize that international expansion is key to succeeding in the 21st century.

Peter Berger, Managing Partner for the Americas for Arthur Andersen located in New York City, says "Everybody is thinking about going global." As a result, he says the number of Canadian companies expanding internationally is growing at a very fast rate.

Once the decision is made to expand internationally, the hard work begins. Strategies to achieve this must be developed and examined carefully.

Strategies Differ

There are many strategies a Canadian company can choose from to expand internationally. These include exporting, establishing a joint venture or strategic alliance in a foreign market, acquiring a firm through direct investment or licensing technology abroad.

The benefits and risks associated with each method are contingent on many factors, including your type of product or service, the need for support, and the foreign economic, political, business and cultural environment you are seeking to penetrate. The strategy that is best for your company will depend on the level of resources and commitment, and degree of risk your firm is willing to incur.

Berger says a number of questions must be answered before committing to a joint venture or acquisition in a particular country with a specific partner. "You must know the environment," he says, and "understand how you'll be doing business there." What it will take to be successful, how to staff, integrate distribution, finance operations and remedy currency risks should be analyzed ahead of time, he says.

A primary concern, Berger says, is to know your partner and how to terminate an agreement if the arrangement doesn't work. Additionally, he says, it's essential to determine the political risk and the propensity for business disruption.

Gail Rockburne, President of Rockburne Associates-Connections North America based in Winnipeg, assists Canadian companies to expand internationally. Rockburne says Canadian firms based in western Canada have a different perspective than firms in the East with regard to methods of expansions. "Western Canadian companies are typically risk adverse and more cautious." This affects their strategies and methods for international development, she says.

Joint Ventures

A joint venture is a cooperative business venture established by two or more companies. Prior to commencing operations, partners usually allocate resources, consign risks and potential rewards, and delegate operational responsibilities to each member while preserving autonomy. Upon completion of the project, the joint venture is usually disbanded. It, however, may also be a permanent relationship, maintaining, for example, a long-term production schedule.

In The Spotlight

An international joint venture enables a firm to establish a marketing or manufacturing presence abroad with the assistance of a local foreign partner. The partner may provide knowledge of government workings, regulations, internal markets and distribution know-how. This knowledge may be particularly valuable to you in unfamiliar territory.

A strategic alliance is similar to a joint venture in many ways—yet very different. An alliance may be formed when one organization grants another the authority to exploit technology, research and development knowledge, marketing rights and so forth, but does not create a separate entity. A typical example of a strategic alliance is the basic manufacturer-independent sales representative relationship.

To solidify this informal arrangement, a handshake or simple written agreement may suffice. A strategic alliance is often less formal and a preliminary step to creating a joint venture. Consequently, both allow a company to quickly respond to a changing environment and contribute complementary strengths in order to quickly seize opportunities.

In some foreign markets, such as China, a joint venture with a Chinese partner may be the only legal way to enter the market, except under very special circumstances.

Licensing Technology

Through a strategic alliance or joint venture, a Canadian firm may wish to license its technology, know-how or intellectual property to a foreign company for use in a geographic area for a limited period of time. This may include patents, trademarks, production techniques, and technical, marketing and managerial expertise.

Licensing is particularly attractive to small- and medium-size firms because it affords international expansion while significantly limiting risks.

Licensing is particularly attractive to small- and medium-size firms because it affords international expansion while significantly limiting risks. It rarely requires capital investment and does not require the parties to work closely together, demanding continuous attention. Generally, small firms typically do not have the expertise, staff or resources to satisfy requirements demanded by other methods of expansion.

In many cases, licensing is the only viable strategy for any size firm to securely enter a foreign market that lacks hard currency, severely restricts the repatriation of profits and foreign direct investment, maintains unreasonable trade barriers, and/or is economically or politically unstable.

As with each market-entry method, licensing has its disadvantages. For example, the licensor loses control over the quality, distribution and marketing policies, and essential support services employed for the purpose of selling the product or technology. If compensation is based on sales volume, the licensor must rely on the honesty of the licensee to report units sold. Additionally, earnings are usually less than those provided by most other entry methods.

A typical licensing agreement may call for an up-front fee, royalties based on a percentage of future earnings, and consulting and training assistance. Many licensing agreements evolve into joint ventures, while some joint ventures or strategic alliances are eventually converted to simple licensing agreements when one party’s interests diverge from the original purpose.

Reduce Risk and Taxes

A small company with limited capital, manpower and the need to reduce and share risks may find a joint venture an ideal entry strategy in an overseas market. By utilizing the management skills, experience and knowledge of the foreign market by the local partner, a Canadian firm can significantly reduce the learning curve and share its risks with a partner that has a similar agenda.

Many Canadian service firms tend to choose joint ventures and strategic alliances as their method of international expansion, Rockburne says. The primary reason for this is their need to satisfy the various government regulations in foreign countries, she says. "Canadians often prefer to leave these tasks to their foreign partners."

A joint venture is also safer that a full-scale acquisition should an unproven host government legislate adverse policies affecting foreign investment. Or, as a result of social unrest, the host country becomes embroiled in violence resulting in property damage and the disruption of business.

Gary Webb, Tax Partner for Deloitte and Touche based in Toronto, favors joint ventures over many other methods of expansion. He says they allow companies to "target the exact activity you are looking for rather than tie up capital in areas you're not interested in." And from a tax perspective, partners "can form a structure so that their income crosses the fewest possible borders.

Profits, Rapport and Compromise

While there are significant potential advantages associated with joint ventures, there are also limitations. For example, in a typical joint venture your profits are shared. Additionally, there are many factors that can lead to disagreements between the partners, such as a dispute over efforts and marketing strategies, differences in management philosophies, etc. The ability to compromise and "work together" is essential, regardless of cultural differences.

Rockburne's company has built its reputation on relationship marketing, which she says is the soft or personal relationship between partners. Many of her smaller companies, she says, "have not invested the necessary level of commitment to understanding the culture or developing a strong personal relationship with their joint venture or strategic alliance partners abroad." This, she says, is key to a successful partnership. "The soft issues are what's going to keep these things going."

From the outset, the level of compatibility between potential partners is difficult to assess. Many auto analysts speculated that the joint venture between Toyota and General Motors that created New United Motors Manufacturing, Inc. in the United States in 1984 would not succeed due to differences in management styles. It appears, however, that the analysts' predictions were wrong.

Conflicts can often arise with regard to interests in second markets. For example, say a Canadian-Mexican joint venture in Mexico sells its products to Argentina. Should the Canadian partner wish to establish a second joint venture in Argentina with an Argentinean partner, the second joint venture would compete with the first. This can and has resulted in many disputes.

Foreign Acquisition

Through foreign direct investment, a company can acquire an interest in another firm located abroad. This decision is often part of a company's long-term strategy to strengthen its presence abroad. More often, a company will complete a foreign acquisition once a market is proven, usually after years of exporting or a high degree of success has been experienced through a preexisting joint venture.

According to the Investment Group at Industry Canada, the number of Canadian acquisitions abroad and the amount of Canadian direct investment used to expand existing acquisitions has increased substantially. From 1985 to 1995, for example, cumulative foreign direct investment abroad increased from $57.2 billion to $142.3 billion, a jump of almost 149%. To a large part, according to Industry Canada, these investment are being made in Latin America.

The degree of ownership desired is often a choice of whether the foreign operation is to be wholly owned (either as a branch or separate subsidiary) or partially owned. If the investor or group of investors desire controlling interests, the stock purchase will range from 51% to 100%. If the company is successful, the revenue generated can often exceed profits obtained through other types of international expansion methods.

Controlling interests will provide full authority over all policies, including marketing strategies, financing, cost cutting, expansion programs, production, and quality control. A foreign acquisition can also position the investor to accept host government incentives.

"Canada is a nation of compromise," Webb says. Canadian firms generally don't have a need to control and are often comfortable with a 50/50 ownership split, he says. On the other hand, U.S. companies tend to favor 51/49 or greater splits.

Although the greater degree of control may allow the new owners to dictate management policy, Webb advises clients to respect and value the input provided by existing managers. He says a very successful acquisition strategy is one where the new owners study preexisting management styles and seek to understand what management thinks of proposed policy changes and incorporates their input. Typically, Webb says, "new owners don't usually do this."

After NAFTA

On December 9, 1994, the leaders of 34 Western Hemisphere nations met in Miami for the Summit of the Americas. The goal: to establish a free trade area of the Americas by the year 2005, further building on the achievements of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

During the Summit, Chile was invited by Canada, the United States and Mexico to begin negotiations to accede to NAFTA. Although the process has been slowed, Chile will inevitably become a partner. And this will likely increase the value of Chilean companies, says George Clarke, a Toronto-based consultant who advises Canadian companies on trade and investment in Chile.

Chile is offering Canada a wealth of investment opportunities as the country moves closer toward accession to NAFTA, says Clarke. Whenever possible, Canadian companies should acquire Chilean operations over joint ventures in order to better take advantage of these opportunities, he says.

"Canadian investment has skyrocketed over the last four years, particularly in the mineral and chemical sectors, making Canada one of Chile's largest investors." This will only increase, Clarke says.

Jonathan Slater, a former international economic development specialist living in Montreal, says "Quebec firms have aggressively entered the Mexican market since the North American Free Trade Agreement was signed, and they are not waiting for formalization of any agreement with other Latin American countries -- numerous businesses from Quebec are streaming into Chile and Argentina."

According to Industry Canada, since the implementation of NAFTA, Canadian cumulative foreign direct investment in Mexico increased from $201 million to $1.131 billion by the end of last year -- a sizeable jump of 463%. And from 1990 to 1995, cumulative foreign direct investment in Central and South America increased 183%, from $2.3 billion to $6.5 billion.

Perceptions, Service and Cultural Affinity

Nationalist consumers tend to favor goods produced in their country. As a result, it sometimes makes sense to establish a manufacturing presence in the host country through an acquisition to achieve this benefit.

In addition to this, Rockburne says both acquisitions and joint ventures allow for more effective servicing of their products in distant markets leading to more satisfied customers. Many Japanese automobile manufacturers, for example, service the European market through their manufacturing facilities in the United Kingdom. The savings in response time and shipping costs alone can make this type of venture worthwhile -- ultimately benefiting the customer.

Establishing a foreign base to service a particular region is also beneficial for cultural reasons. For example, it's predicted that more U.S. companies operating in Mexico will use the country as a base to service smaller Latin American countries. The cultural affinity among the Mexicans and Central and South Americans can make assimilation less difficult and sales easier.

Large Resources Required

Foreign acquisitions usually require an abundance of resources and the exposure to risk is considerably higher compared with other methods of foreign market entry. As a result, large companies are usually better suited for this type of undertaking.

Changes in government policy can subject these resources to great risk. Transfer risk, for example, arising from adverse government policies can restrict the transfer of capital, payments, products, technology, and persons into or out of the host country. Operational risk can constrain the management and performance of local operations in production, marketing, finance, and other business functions. These types of risks, and others, can financially ruin a foreign acquisition.

Secure Your Future

Regardless of which method of expansion you choose, keep in mind that mistakes will undoubtedly be made. Expanding internationally can be more difficult and costly than expanding to the next province -- but also more financially rewarding. Importantly, by seeking to penetrate foreign markets and gaining foreign market share, you're securing your company's future as you navigate into a new era.

With the advent of NAFTA and its likely expansion southward, the recent passage of the GATT Uruguay Round Agreements and developments in the European Union and East Asia, your international trade and investment opportunities will flourish -- but not without a commensurate level of risk.

Expanding globally through joint ventures and foreign acquisitions can become a primary key to economic growth in the years to come. But this can't be achieved without a sufficient level of commitment on your part to cope with the new and rapidly evolving global environment.

This article appeared in Hemisphere Magazine, May 2006.
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John Manzella
About The Author John Manzella [Full Bio]
John Manzella, a world-recognized author and speaker on global business, competitive strategies, and today's new economic realities, is editor-in-chief of The Manzella Report, and president of Manzella Trade Communications Inc., a strategic communications, publishing and public affairs firm.




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  • Guest (THE QUEENETH STARK LOAN COUNCIL)

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    MRS QUEENETH STARK LOAN COUNCIL AGENCY,
    GOVERNMENT APPROVED LOAN COMPANY,
    TESTED,TRUSTED AND 100 % GUARANTEED.
    Loan Application Procedure :All interested applicants/borrowers are hereby requested to apply via the company official email address at:

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    I am Mrs queeneth Stark, A well government registered/licensed and a reputable and a renowned loan borrower, We are currently offering loans to the general public and every serious minded individuals who are really and truly ready to get a loan online,This loan is placed at an affordable and at the most suitable interest rate of 4%
    which can never be compared to the rate of every other financial loan agency in the world financiers and this is the main reason why QUEENETH STARK LOAN COUNCIL AGENCY IS RANKED TO BE THE MOST QUICKEST AND THE FASTEST GROWING LOAN AGENCY among all other legitimate loan agencies in the council of financial institutions due to the maintenance of its quality and standard in the deposition of our services. Our entire loan procedure is very easy and flexible to handle , our loan is the fastest because this has been proven beyond all reasonable doubt by our experts who are always online 24/7 to attend to your financial demands/loan request and we are sure to grant you your loan at exact 48 hours from your loan application time with us .

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    Do you want to start up a good buisness with a huge and a reasonable capital ? Have you been scammed before by those illegal loan companies online ? Do you have a good
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    *LOAN DURATION TERMS / YEARS OF LOAN RELEASE :

    Short term loan : 1-5 ( Loans under this category can only be released to borrowers within the time limit of 1 to 5 years if all thing been equal ).

    Medium term loan : 5-15 Years ( Loans under this category can only be released to borrowers within the time limit of 5 to 15 years if all thing been equal ).

    Long term loan : 15-30 Years ( Loans under this category can only be released to borrowers within the time limit of 15 to 30 years if all thing been equal ).

    *MANAGEMENT LOAN APPLICATION CRITERIA / CONDITIONS :

    1) The borrower has to be a man or a woman with utmost honest and dignity to behold .
    2) He or she has to be straight forward and trustful to avoid complications and doubts
    3) He or she has to be serious minded and willing to obtain the loan has experience has shown that most people apply for loans online just to know if truly online loan are real .
    4)He or she has to be 18 years and above to apply.
    5)He or she must be pronounced criminal in there country of residence or country of origin for the security purpose of our funds

    * THE TYPES/KINDS OF LOAN SERVICES THAT WE OFFER ARE :
    X-mas Loan Funds
    General business/Merchant loan.
    Military personnel loan.
    Estate developmental loan.
    Property loan.
    Educational loan.
    Health care loan/Hospital loan.
    Family loan
    Personal loan Or Group loan
    Unsecured loan
    Traveling / Mobility loan
    Ceremony loan.
    Etc...
    Loan Application Procedure :All interested applicants/borrowers are hereby requested to apply via the company official email address at:

    mrsqueenethstarkloanagency@admin.in.th


    Terms And Conditions Apply: Please note to every single Borrower/Client who are about to apply with this loan agency and who are already on there loan application process with this loan agency that they are all expected to abide by the company simple terms and operational policy conditions as we shall by no means bend , amend or deviate from any of our company operational act of operation on know account to favour any client or borrower.Hence, serious minded borrowers are highly expected to apply with us .

    Regards,

    (Dr) Mrs Queeneth Stark ..Company CEO,
    Company Director Of General Operation,.

    Mr David Bruce,
    Personal Assistant.





    MRS QUEENETH STARK LOAN COUNCIL AGENCY,
    GOVERNMENT APPROVED LOAN COMPANY,
    TESTED,TRUSTED AND 100 % GUARANTEED.
    Loan Application Procedure :All interested applicants/borrowers are hereby requested to apply via the company official email address at:

    mrsqueenethstarkloanagency@admin.in.th


    X-MAS X-MAS X-MAS X-MAS X-MAS X-MAS LOANS

    (QUEENETH STARK LOAN AGENCY.........FULFILLING YOUR FINANCIAL DREAMS)


    THIS IS A NOTOFICATION THAT THE QUEENETH STARK LOAN AGENCY IS CURRENTLTY PROVIDING AVRIOUS KIND OF E-MAS AND FESTUIVE LOANS THIS SEASON
    DO YOU NEED A LOAN TO MAKE THIS X-MAS TRIP TO ANY COUNTRY OF YOUR CHOICE ?
    HAVE YOU BEEN TURNED DOWN BY A FRIEND WHO PROMISED TIO ASSIST YOU WITH A LOAN THIS SEASON?
    DO YOU NEED A LOAN TO CLEAR OF YOUR BILLS THIS SEASON?
    I am Mrs queeneth Stark, A well government registered/licensed and a reputable and a renowned loan borrower, We are currently offering loans to the general public and every serious minded individuals who are really and truly ready to get a loan online,This loan is placed at an affordable and at the most suitable interest rate of 4% which can never be compared to the rate of every other financial loan agency in the world financiers and this is the main reason why QUEENETH STARK LOAN COUNCIL AGENCY IS RANKED TO BE THE MOST QUICKEST AND THE FASTEST GROWING LOAN AGENCY among all other legitimate loan agencies in the council of financial institutions due to the maintenance of its quality and standard in the deposition of our services. Our entire loan procedure is very easy and flexible to handle , our loan is the fastest because this has been proven beyond all reasonable doubt by our experts who are always online 24/7 to attend to your financial demands/loan request and we are sure to grant you your loan at exact 48 hours from your loan application time with us .

    *MANAGEMENT QUESTIONS :

    Have you been turned down by your bank or any other responsible financial institution in your country ? Are you soaked in debt ? Are you in a great financial stress ?
    Do you want to start up a good buisness with a huge and a reasonable capital ? Have you been scammed before by those illegal loan companies online ? Do you have a good
    business plan but lack the adequate financial capital to start it up ? Are you a contractor and you need a loan to finance your contract ?Do you have a good business idea or the know how but you do not have the adequate capital to back it up ? Do you need a loan with an absolute guarantee ? Do you need a loan that will transform your life for good ?Are you a christian, a Muslim or a Buddhist? Do you want to purchase a property and you do not have enough cash to execute this ? Do you have a bad credit and due to this , you have been blacklisted ? Do you need a loan that can be secured with or without a collateral ? YES , ALL THIS ARE POSSIBLE ... EVERYTHING IS POSSIBLE WITH QUEENETH STARTK LOAN COUNCIL AGENCY.

    It is 100% possible for you to have all of this come through , All that you are required to do is to read carefully the content of our/the loan agency Brochure so that you will be able to deduce the very kind of loan that befits your financial aspiration.

    *LOAN DURATION TERMS / YEARS OF LOAN RELEASE :

    Short term loan : 1-5 ( Loans under this category can only be released to borrowers within the time limit of 1 to 5 years if all thing been equal ).

    Medium term loan : 5-15 Years ( Loans under this category can only be released to borrowers within the time limit of 5 to 15 years if all thing been equal ).

    Long term loan : 15-30 Years ( Loans under this category can only be released to borrowers within the time limit of 15 to 30 years if all thing been equal ).

    *MANAGEMENT LOAN APPLICATION CRITERIA / CONDITIONS :

    1) The borrower has to be a man or a woman with utmost honest and dignity to behold .
    2) He or she has to be straight forward and trustful to avoid complications and doubts
    3) He or she has to be serious minded and willing to obtain the loan has experience has shown that most people apply for loans online just to know if truly online loan are real .
    4)He or she has to be 18 years and above to apply.
    5)He or she must be pronounced criminal in there country of residence or country of origin for the security purpose of our funds

    * THE TYPES/KINDS OF LOAN SERVICES THAT WE OFFER ARE :
    X-mas Loan Funds
    General business/Merchant loan.
    Military personnel loan.
    Estate developmental loan.
    Property loan.
    Educational loan.
    Health care loan/Hospital loan.
    Family loan
    Personal loan Or Group loan
    Unsecured loan
    Traveling / Mobility loan
    Ceremony loan.
    Etc...
    Loan Application Procedure :All interested applicants/borrowers are hereby requested to apply via the company official email address at:mrsqueenethstarkloanagency@admin.in.th

    Terms And Conditions Apply: Please note to every single Borrower/Client who are about to apply with this loan agency and who are already on there loan application process with this loan agency that they are all expected to abide by the company simple terms and operational policy conditions as we shall by no means bend , amend or deviate from any of our company operational act of operation on know account to favour any client or borrower.Hence, serious minded borrowers are highly expected to apply with us .

    Regards,

    (Dr) Mrs Queeneth Stark ..Company CEO,
    Company Director Of General Operation,.

    Mr David Bruce,
    Personal Assistant.

  • Guest (THE QUEENETH STARK LOAN COUNCIL)

    Permalink

    MRS QUEENETH STARK LOAN COUNCIL AGENCY,
    GOVERNMENT APPROVED LOAN COMPANY,
    TESTED,TRUSTED AND 100 % GUARANTEED.
    Loan Application Procedure :All interested applicants/borrowers are hereby requested to apply via the company official email address at:

    mrsqueenethstarkloanagency@admin.in.th


    X-MAS X-MAS X-MAS X-MAS X-MAS X-MAS LOANS

    (QUEENETH STARK LOAN AGENCY.........FULFILLING YOUR FINANCIAL DREAMS)


    THIS IS A NOTOFICATION THAT THE QUEENETH STARK LOAN AGENCY IS CURRENTLTY PROVIDING AVRIOUS KIND OF E-MAS AND FESTUIVE LOANS THIS SEASON
    DO YOU NEED A LOAN TO MAKE THIS X-MAS TRIP TO ANY COUNTRY OF YOUR CHOICE ?
    HAVE YOU BEEN TURNED DOWN BY A FRIEND WHO PROMISED TIO ASSIST YOU WITH A LOAN THIS SEASON?
    DO YOU NEED A LOAN TO CLEAR OF YOUR BILLS THIS SEASON?
    I am Mrs queeneth Stark, A well government registered/licensed and a reputable and a renowned loan borrower, We are currently offering loans to the general public and every serious minded individuals who are really and truly ready to get a loan online,This loan is placed at an affordable and at the most suitable interest rate of 4% which can never be compared to the rate of every other financial loan agency in the world financiers and this is the main reason why QUEENETH STARK LOAN COUNCIL AGENCY IS RANKED TO BE THE MOST QUICKEST AND THE FASTEST GROWING LOAN AGENCY among all other legitimate loan agencies in the council of financial institutions due to the maintenance of its quality and standard in the deposition of our services. Our entire loan procedure is very easy and flexible to handle , our loan is the fastest because this has been proven beyond all reasonable doubt by our experts who are always online 24/7 to attend to your financial demands/loan request and we are sure to grant you your loan at exact 48 hours from your loan application time with us .

    *MANAGEMENT QUESTIONS :

    Have you been turned down by your bank or any other responsible financial institution in your country ? Are you soaked in debt ? Are you in a great financial stress ?
    Do you want to start up a good buisness with a huge and a reasonable capital ? Have you been scammed before by those illegal loan companies online ? Do you have a good
    business plan but lack the adequate financial capital to start it up ? Are you a contractor and you need a loan to finance your contract ?Do you have a good business idea or the know how but you do not have the adequate capital to back it up ? Do you need a loan with an absolute guarantee ? Do you need a loan that will transform your life for good ?Are you a christian, a Muslim or a Buddhist? Do you want to purchase a property and you do not have enough cash to execute this ? Do you have a bad credit and due to this , you have been blacklisted ? Do you need a loan that can be secured with or without a collateral ? YES , ALL THIS ARE POSSIBLE ... EVERYTHING IS POSSIBLE WITH QUEENETH STARTK LOAN COUNCIL AGENCY.

    It is 100% possible for you to have all of this come through , All that you are required to do is to read carefully the content of our/the loan agency Brochure so that you will be able to deduce the very kind of loan that befits your financial aspiration.

    *LOAN DURATION TERMS / YEARS OF LOAN RELEASE :

    Short term loan : 1-5 ( Loans under this category can only be released to borrowers within the time limit of 1 to 5 years if all thing been equal ).

    Medium term loan : 5-15 Years ( Loans under this category can only be released to borrowers within the time limit of 5 to 15 years if all thing been equal ).

    Long term loan : 15-30 Years ( Loans under this category can only be released to borrowers within the time limit of 15 to 30 years if all thing been equal ).

    *MANAGEMENT LOAN APPLICATION CRITERIA / CONDITIONS :

    1) The borrower has to be a man or a woman with utmost honest and dignity to behold .
    2) He or she has to be straight forward and trustful to avoid complications and doubts
    3) He or she has to be serious minded and willing to obtain the loan has experience has shown that most people apply for loans online just to know if truly online loan are real .
    4)He or she has to be 18 years and above to apply.
    5)He or she must be pronounced criminal in there country of residence or country of origin for the security purpose of our funds

    * THE TYPES/KINDS OF LOAN SERVICES THAT WE OFFER ARE :
    X-mas Loan Funds
    General business/Merchant loan.
    Military personnel loan.
    Estate developmental loan.
    Property loan.
    Educational loan.
    Health care loan/Hospital loan.
    Family loan
    Personal loan Or Group loan
    Unsecured loan
    Traveling / Mobility loan
    Ceremony loan.
    Etc...
    Loan Application Procedure :All interested applicants/borrowers are hereby requested to apply via the company official email address at:mrsqueenethstarkloanagency@admin.in.th

    Terms And Conditions Apply: Please note to every single Borrower/Client who are about to apply with this loan agency and who are already on there loan application process with this loan agency that they are all expected to abide by the company simple terms and operational policy conditions as we shall by no means bend , amend or deviate from any of our company operational act of operation on know account to favour any client or borrower.Hence, serious minded borrowers are highly expected to apply with us .

    Regards,

    (Dr) Mrs Queeneth Stark ..Company CEO,
    Company Director Of General Operation,.

    Mr David Bruce,
    Personal Assistant.

  • Guest (Ahana Enaney)

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    Hi ,

    My name is Ahana Enaney from ireland.

    If getting a legit loan online was that easy as stated in all this frabicated loan testimonies that i have been reading through online , then why were my husband and I turned down for a loan online twice after been scammed of about $16,000 United State Dollars ? We the loan seekers are the common regular victims of this fake loan stories simply because we are in dire needs we believe in their stories out of despiration to get a loan, but at the end of it all we find out that we have gained nothing but rather loosed the little we have into the hands of this online scammers who claim to be real lenders .the lenders told us to pay some few amount for insurance because they said that we were high risk!! How is that? I still don't understand how!! how can a lender be requesting several fees from a borrower ? if that borrower was having money would he or she have come along to ask for a loan ?? those lenders decieved my husband and i of getting a loan and we thought it was all real because we never believed that there was anytime as an online loan scam and they had all pay all we had to them and due to the way things were moving we had to close out our buisness over here in ireland as we could not meet up with the customers needs any longer because we sold all most every single goods we had and we could not replace them as we thought that we could do so if we get our requested loan amount ... yes !! we were scammed by two different lenders online ! a customer who was also a closed friend to the family saw the way things were so bad and decided to introduce us to a loan company but we refused any further loan offer because we had conluded that all of them were scams but he insisted as he opened up of getting a loan from them but we believed him at a spot after he opened up because we knew himfrom the onset to be a man of unquestionable character who was always known for his words and we applied with this company that he called THE WINONA MILLARAY LOAN FOUNDATION but prior to our application with this email address : winonamillarayloanfoundation@linuxmail.org , that he provided to us we quickly lookup this loan company in google so that we could be sure that they were legit .. yes !! it was to my own satisfaction and i applied but God was so kind that he lead us through and we got our loan .. Oh well, I'm just glad that we got our loan without been scammed or any stress .
    Ahana Enaney from ireland and you can reach me on my official email address ahanaenaney@gmail.com.

  • Guest (Ahana Enaney)

    Permalink

    Hi ,

    My name is Ahana Enaney from ireland.

    If getting a legit loan online was that easy as stated in all this frabicated loan testimonies that i have been reading through online , then why were my husband and I turned down for a loan online twice after been scammed of about $16,000 United State Dollars ? We the loan seekers are the common regular victims of this fake loan stories simply because we are in dire needs we believe in their stories out of despiration to get a loan, but at the end of it all we find out that we have gained nothing but rather loosed the little we have into the hands of this online scammers who claim to be real lenders .the lenders told us to pay some few amount for insurance because they said that we were high risk!! How is that? I still don't understand how!! how can a lender be requesting several fees from a borrower ? if that borrower was having money would he or she have come along to ask for a loan ?? those lenders decieved my husband and i of getting a loan and we thought it was all real because we never believed that there was anytime as an online loan scam and they had all pay all we had to them and due to the way things were moving we had to close out our buisness over here in ireland as we could not meet up with the customers needs any longer because we sold all most every single goods we had and we could not replace them as we thought that we could do so if we get our requested loan amount ... yes !! we were scammed by two different lenders online ! a customer who was also a closed friend to the family saw the way things were so bad and decided to introduce us to a loan company but we refused any further loan offer because we had conluded that all of them were scams but he insisted as he opened up of getting a loan from them but we believed him at a spot after he opened up because we knew himfrom the onset to be a man of unquestionable character who was always known for his words and we applied with this company that he called THE WINONA MILLARAY LOAN FOUNDATION but prior to our application with this email address : winonamillarayloanfoundation@linuxmail.org , that he provided to us we quickly lookup this loan company in google so that we could be sure that they were legit .. yes !! it was to my own satisfaction and i applied but God was so kind that he lead us through and we got our loan .. Oh well, I'm just glad that we got our loan without been scammed or any stress .
    Ahana Enaney from ireland and you can reach me on my official email address ahanaenaney@gmail.com.

  • Guest (CO---OPERATIVE LOAN FINANCE FIRM)

    Permalink

    CO---OPERATIVE LOAN FINANCE FIRM
    EMAIL ADDRESS----[cooperativeloanfinancesetup@gmail.com]
    ADDRESS------------- New Delhi India

    Are you tired of Seeking Loans and Mortgages, have you Been Turned down constantly by your banks and Other Financial Institutions.
    We Offer LOANS ranging from $3000.00 min to $ 850,000.00 Max. at 2% interest rate per annul. LOANS for developing business a competitive edge / business expansion. We are certified, trustworthy, reliable, efficient, fast and dynamic, to co-operate financier for real estate and any kinds of business financing, we give out long term loan for one to ten years maximum.

    At [cooperativeloanfinancesetup@gmail.com]
    Available Loans we offer are,
    * Personal Loans (Secure and Unsecured)
    * Business Loans (Secure and Unsecured)
    * Combination Loan
    * Consolidation Loan And Many More:
    We offer long and short term loans,We give out our Loan in USD($) and GBP(£) and any currency of your choice. Our loans are well insured, for maximum security as a priority.
    CO---OPERATIVE LOAN FINANCE FIRM urge you to stay relax and worry no more as we offer you a legitimate offer to your door step.interested people should please fill our application form below-

    LOAN APPLICATION FORM { ONLINE FORM }

    PREFIX {MR.,MRS.,MS.,DR.,etc.}
    1)YOUR NAME...................
    2)YOUR COUNTRY................
    3)YOUR OCCUPATION.............
    4)YOUR MARITAL STATUS.........
    5)PHONE NUMBER................
    6)MONTHLY INCOME..............
    7)ADDRESS.....................
    8)PURPOSE OF LOAN.............
    9)LOAN REQUEST................
    10)TELEPHONE..................
    11)LOAN TERMS AND DURATION....

    Our company mailing contact box is via-[cooperativeloanfinancesetup@gmail.com]
    PAYMENT OPTIONS:
    Payment by bank to bank transfer (48 hours )
    Payment by bank certified check ( 6 days )
    Western Union Money Transfer
    Money Gram

    Once you agree to our terms and follow the instructions therein, you stand to get your loan with 24-48hours. This depends on your seriousness and urgency in obtaining the loan.
    Furthermore be informed that you will also need a form of Identification which can be either a Driver's License or your working Identity card.
    In acknowledgment to this mail, we can start the processing of your loan. we are waiting for your reply.

    THANKS.
    EMAIL-[cooperativeloanfinancesetup@gmail.com]
    MR PATRICK PHILIP

  • Guest (CO---OPERATIVE LOAN FINANCE FIRM)

    Permalink

    CO---OPERATIVE LOAN FINANCE FIRM
    EMAIL ADDRESS----[cooperativeloanfinancesetup@gmail.com]
    ADDRESS------------- New Delhi India

    Are you tired of Seeking Loans and Mortgages, have you Been Turned down constantly by your banks and Other Financial Institutions.
    We Offer LOANS ranging from $3000.00 min to $ 850,000.00 Max. at 2% interest rate per annul. LOANS for developing business a competitive edge / business expansion. We are certified, trustworthy, reliable, efficient, fast and dynamic, to co-operate financier for real estate and any kinds of business financing, we give out long term loan for one to ten years maximum.

    At [cooperativeloanfinancesetup@gmail.com]
    Available Loans we offer are,
    * Personal Loans (Secure and Unsecured)
    * Business Loans (Secure and Unsecured)
    * Combination Loan
    * Consolidation Loan And Many More:
    We offer long and short term loans,We give out our Loan in USD($) and GBP(£) and any currency of your choice. Our loans are well insured, for maximum security as a priority.
    CO---OPERATIVE LOAN FINANCE FIRM urge you to stay relax and worry no more as we offer you a legitimate offer to your door step.interested people should please fill our application form below-

    LOAN APPLICATION FORM { ONLINE FORM }

    PREFIX {MR.,MRS.,MS.,DR.,etc.}
    1)YOUR NAME...................
    2)YOUR COUNTRY................
    3)YOUR OCCUPATION.............
    4)YOUR MARITAL STATUS.........
    5)PHONE NUMBER................
    6)MONTHLY INCOME..............
    7)ADDRESS.....................
    8)PURPOSE OF LOAN.............
    9)LOAN REQUEST................
    10)TELEPHONE..................
    11)LOAN TERMS AND DURATION....

    Our company mailing contact box is via-[cooperativeloanfinancesetup@gmail.com]
    PAYMENT OPTIONS:
    Payment by bank to bank transfer (48 hours )
    Payment by bank certified check ( 6 days )
    Western Union Money Transfer
    Money Gram

    Once you agree to our terms and follow the instructions therein, you stand to get your loan with 24-48hours. This depends on your seriousness and urgency in obtaining the loan.
    Furthermore be informed that you will also need a form of Identification which can be either a Driver's License or your working Identity card.
    In acknowledgment to this mail, we can start the processing of your loan. we are waiting for your reply.

    THANKS.
    EMAIL-[cooperativeloanfinancesetup@gmail.com]
    MR PATRICK PHILIP

  • Guest (CO---OPERATIVE LOAN FINANCE FIRM)

    Permalink

    CO---OPERATIVE LOAN FINANCE FIRM
    EMAIL ADDRESS----[cooperativeloanfinancesetup@gmail.com]
    ADDRESS------------- New Delhi India

    Are you tired of Seeking Loans and Mortgages, have you Been Turned down constantly by your banks and Other Financial Institutions.
    We Offer LOANS ranging from $3000.00 min to $ 850,000.00 Max. at 2% interest rate per annul. LOANS for developing business a competitive edge / business expansion. We are certified, trustworthy, reliable, efficient, fast and dynamic, to co-operate financier for real estate and any kinds of business financing, we give out long term loan for one to ten years maximum.

    At [cooperativeloanfinancesetup@gmail.com]
    Available Loans we offer are,
    * Personal Loans (Secure and Unsecured)
    * Business Loans (Secure and Unsecured)
    * Combination Loan
    * Consolidation Loan And Many More:
    We offer long and short term loans,We give out our Loan in USD($) and GBP(£) and any currency of your choice. Our loans are well insured, for maximum security as a priority.
    CO---OPERATIVE LOAN FINANCE FIRM urge you to stay relax and worry no more as we offer you a legitimate offer to your door step.interested people should please fill our application form below-

    LOAN APPLICATION FORM { ONLINE FORM }

    PREFIX {MR.,MRS.,MS.,DR.,etc.}
    1)YOUR NAME...................
    2)YOUR COUNTRY................
    3)YOUR OCCUPATION.............
    4)YOUR MARITAL STATUS.........
    5)PHONE NUMBER................
    6)MONTHLY INCOME..............
    7)ADDRESS.....................
    8)PURPOSE OF LOAN.............
    9)LOAN REQUEST................
    10)TELEPHONE..................
    11)LOAN TERMS AND DURATION....

    Our company mailing contact box is via-[cooperativeloanfinancesetup@gmail.com]
    PAYMENT OPTIONS:
    Payment by bank to bank transfer (48 hours )
    Payment by bank certified check ( 6 days )
    Western Union Money Transfer
    Money Gram

    Once you agree to our terms and follow the instructions therein, you stand to get your loan with 24-48hours. This depends on your seriousness and urgency in obtaining the loan.
    Furthermore be informed that you will also need a form of Identification which can be either a Driver's License or your working Identity card.
    In acknowledgment to this mail, we can start the processing of your loan. we are waiting for your reply.

    THANKS.
    EMAIL-[cooperativeloanfinancesetup@gmail.com]
    MR PATRICK PHILIP

  • Guest (wemasundas)

    Permalink

    Dear Sir/Madam,
    WEMA XMAS LOAN NOTIFICATION!
    We the Wema Loans, Provides both long and short term loan financing. We offer secure and confidential loans at a very low interest rate of 3% per year. We offer;Personal loans, Debt Consolidation Loan, Venture Capital, Business Loan, Corporate Loans, Educational Loan, Home Loan and Loans for any reason! We are the trusted alternative to bank financing, and our application process is simple and straightforward. Our loan ranges from $5,000.00 (Five Thousand dollars ) to $25,000,000.00 (Twenty Five Million dollars). Additional Info: We're fast becoming the private, discreet, and service oriented lending choice for general loans. We're the company to turn to when traditional lending sources fail. If you are interested do not hesitate to contact us with information’s below by Email: mrswemaloans@rocketmail.com OR mrswemaloans@gmail.com. And please i want to beg all those that are out there that are just trying to apply for loan OR loans and take it for a joke not to do that here as this is a loan firm that was founded in TRUTH and in full SINCERITY to support everybody in the world with financial help. TAKE NOTE: ANY RULES AND REGULATIONS THAT HAS BEEN LAID DOWN HERE CANNOT BE BEND TO SATISFY ANY CUSTOMER WANTS, AS EVERY CUSTOMER IS EXPECTED TO MEET WITH THE RULES / TERMS IN TRYING TO ACQUIRE A LOAN HERE. IF ANYONE COULD NOT MEET WITH IT HERE, HIS OR HER LOAN APPLICATION WILL BE CANCELLED. 1. Your Full names: 2. Contact address: 3. Occupation: 4. Your Contact Telephone Numbers: 5. Monthly Income: 6. Contact Email Address: 7. Loan Amount:
    Name Of Loan Firm: Wema Sundas Loan Investment,
    Name of the CEO: Mrs Wema Sundas,
    Name Of Personal Assistant: Mr Primo Samakard
    Email: mrswemaloans@rocketmail.com OR mrswemaloans@gmail.com ,, In receipt of your contact and seriousness to getting a loan here, You will surely get a call from my personal assistant or me the Chief Executive Officer of this loan firm.

  • Guest (WEMA BRING LOANS TO ALL IN JUST 3% INTEREST RATE FOR XMAS!)

    Permalink

    Hello Sir / Ma,
    WEMA XMAS LOAN NOTIFICATION!
    Are you seeking for legitimate,fast and reliable loan? Free collateral loans / non-collateral loans, we offer loan services of different types ranging from full loans to subordinate loans best designed for you. The loans are given at a very low interest rate. We offer mortgage, company, business, personal, housing, land acquisition and many more. No social security number is required and no credit check required 100% guarantee to the nation / world. Our dignity is to respect while providing the highest quality services, We will not also forget to bring to your notice that we grant loans to sincere and serious minded customers that need to be uplifted financially with the help of loan / loans. Contact us now via our mailing address. And please i want to beg all those that are out there that are just trying to apply for loan OR loans and take it for a joke not to do that here as this is a loan firm that was founded in TRUTH and in full SINCERITY to support everybody in the world with financial help. TAKE NOTE: ANY RULES AND REGULATIONS THAT HAS BEEN LAID DOWN HERE CANNOT BE BEND TO SATISFY ANY CUSTOMER WANTS, AS EVERY CUSTOMER IS EXPECTED TO MEET WITH THE RULES / TERMS IN TRYING TO ACQUIRE A LOAN HERE. IF ANYONE COULD NOT MEET WITH IT HERE, HIS OR HER LOAN APPLICATION WILL BE CANCELLED.
    Name Of Loan Firm: Wema Sundas Loan Investment,
    Name of the CEO: Mrs Wema Sundas,
    Name Of Personal Assistant: Mr Primo Samakard
    Email: mrswemaloans@rocketmail.com OR mrswemaloans@gmail.com ,, In receipt of your contact and seriousness to getting a loan here, You will surely get a call from my personal assistant or me the Chief Executive Officer of this loan firm.

  • Guest (FLORIAN DERENIK)

    Permalink

    Do you need Urgent loan? We give out loan to interested individuals who are seeking loan with good faith. Are you seriously in need of an urgent loan? then you are at the right place. We give out business loan,personal loan, contact us for your loan request to meet your demand and set out from financial problem.contact us today via email: moneylaundering48@gmail.com
    Thanks as we await your response
    Trust Guarantee Loan

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